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Sedimentary Archaeology

Ruth Shahack-Gross

Group Head: Prof. Ruth Shahack-Gross
Department of Maritime Civilizations
Email: rgross@univ.haifa.ac.il
Cell: +972-54-760-8637
Office: Multipurpose Bldg., Room 116

The group’s main research interest is in the field of “site formation processes” – studying the processes that shape archaeological sites and affect the interpretation of macroscopic and microscopic archaeological assemblages.

The group is called 'Sedimentary Archaeology' because of the similarity of the research we conduct to that conducted in the scientific field of sedimentary geology: We study anthropogenic and environmental aspects of erosion, deposition, degradation, pedogenesis, diagenesis and fossilization in archaeological sites. The group primarily studies occupation deposits, in their archaeological context, focusing on stratigraphy and micro-stratigraphy.

We address human-induced (anthropogenic) processes through ethnoarchaeological and geo-ethnoarchaeological research, and nature-induced (environmental) processes through laboratory analyses and experimentation.

We work in sites from a variety of time periods (prehistoric, historic and modern) and environmental settings (caves, flood plains, artificial mounds, coasts).

In terms of archaeological materials studied, we focus on the taphonomy and diagenesis of bones, herbivore dung, phytoliths, wood ash, mud bricks, and recently pottery and domestic trash (see list of publications).

Previous work of this research group focused on terrestrial archaeological sites. Formation processes related to coastal and submerged archaeological sites are less explored. One of the current goals of the research group is developing new understandings about formation of maritime coastal and underwater sites.

Tel Dor

Coastal and underwater excavation at Tel Dor, Israel (2017) conducted by the Department of Maritime Civilizations (co-directed by R. Shahack-Gross and A. Yasur-Landau, in collaboration with A. Gilboa, R. Martin and I. Sharon). Formation processes at the sea-coast interface are studied here, in the context of Iron Age I Phoenician occupation (image courtesy of A. Pesso).

 

The Sedimentary Archaeology Lab at the Dept. of Maritime Civilizations (Charney School of Marine Sciences), University of Haifa has a variety of basic research resources. It includes a wet lab with a fume hood, distilled water column, centrifuges, pH-EC meter, drying and furnace ovens, and coarse and analytical balances. The dry lab includes an FTIR spectrometer, high power stereoscope, and three petrographic microscopes. Bench space for artifact and sample analysis, as well as desks for the lab manager and students/researchers are available as well. A total station and a dry-wet camera are jointly owned by the Sedimentary Archaeology and the Coastal and Underwater laboratories.

Types of analyses carried out:

  •  Infrared spectroscopy: This technique enables to identify organic and inorganic materials and to study their states of preservation. It is routinely utilized for understanding microstratigraphy and site structure. It also allows determining whether or not certain materials have been exposed to high temperatures. See more in Weiner's 2010 Chapter 12.  

Thermo iS5 FTIR

Thermo iS5 FTIR spectrometer stationed in the lab.

  • Phytolith analysis: Phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed in living plants. Our laboratory studies the absolute concentrations of phytoliths, their state of preservation and their anatomical origin. These data allow addressing questions about the origin of plant material in archaeological sites, the site’s past economy and the inhabitants’ use of space. See rapid extraction procedure in Katz et al. 2010.  

Centrifuges for micro remain extraction and microscope stationed in the lab

Centrifuges for micro-remain extraction and microscope stationed in the lab.

  • Wood ash analysis: Wood ash is composed of microscopic calcite crystals. Its quantitative analysis allows determining the presence/absence of fire on site, use of space, and types of fuel used by past inhabitants and thus human-environment relationships. See on formation of wood ash in Shahack-Gross and Ayalon 2013.
  • Dung spherulite analysis: Dung spherulites are microscopic carbonaceous bodies that are formed in the intestines of herbivores, mostly ruminants, and are excreted with their dung. Presence of dung spherulites is useful for determining corralling of animals and thus subsistence economy (pastoralism) and site structure.  See review on herbivore dung in Shahack-Gross 2011.
    Quantification of dung spherulites together with quantification of wood ash crystals and plant phytoliths allows accurate reconstruction of ancient fuel types. See procedure in Gur-Arieh et al. 2013.  

Furnace and drying oven

Furnace and drying oven, balances and sonicator stationed in the lab. Used for experimentation, preparation of reference materials and extraction of archaeological micro-remains.

  • Micromorphology: Like histology, where intact biological tissues are studied in thin section, micromorphology is the study of intact soils and sediments in thin section. This technique enables direct observation and identification of materials that comprise archaeological sediments, the spatial relationships between different sediment layers, and the post-depositional changes to the sediments under study. See more in Friesem et al. 2014.  

Fume hood sink and distilled water stationed in the lab

Fume hood, sink and distilled water stationed in the lab. Used for impregnation of oriented sediment samples for micromorphological research.

Studying site formation processes requires understanding of both cultural and natural processes. In terrestrial and coastal sites this is achieved by utilizing the following research methods:

  1. Ethnoarchaeology: Ethnoarchaeology is a research method in which the archaeologist studies materials and processes in a socio-cultural setting. This method enables to make analogies from modern (mostly traditional) human settlements and activities to past ones. Ethnoarchaeological studies of this research group started in 1999 when R. Shahack-Gross conducted research among the Maasai in southern Kenya. Since then members of the group studied materials and processes in the following ethnoarchaeological settings: Semi-nomadic Bedouins (Negev Highlands, Israel; by Shahack-Gross), settled Bedouins (Besor area, Israel; by Dr. David Friesem), Farmers (Kranionas, Greece; by Dr. David Friesem), Farmers (Djam, Uzbekistan; by Dr. Shira Gur-Arieh). Future ethnoarchaeological studies in coastal sites are anticipated.

    Photograph showing R. Shahack-Gross during ethnoarchaeological fieldwork, Kajiado District, Kenya (1999).

    Photograph showing R. Shahack-Gross during ethnoarchaeological fieldwork, Kajiado District, Kenya (1999).

  2. Experimental archaeology: Experimental archaeology means conducting experiments that intend to shed light on archaeological activities and processes. Almost every member of the group uses this approach during their research. The most recent set of experiments targeted the thermal behavior of chaff-tempered mud-bricks, within the framework of understanding processes of destruction by fire in ancient Near Eastern cities (tells).

    Photograph showing unheated mud brick within furnace oven, with 6 thermocouples inserted from its edge to core which enabled recording of the rate of heat penetration.

    Photograph showing unheated mud brick within furnace oven, with 6 thermocouples inserted from its edge to core which enabled recording of the rate of heat penetration. For more details see Forget et al. 2015

  3. Archaeological excavation: All group members participate in archaeological excavations. Working at archaeological science means constant reciprocity between the field and the laboratory. Sampling of materials for analysis is conducted in the field, preferentially during active excavation, considering stratigraphy and context. Samples are then examined using various analytical methods either in a field laboratory or in the permanent laboratory.

    Photograph showing bulk sampling along a sedimentary profile in the coastal city of Tel Dor, Israel
    Photographs showing group members during excavation at Gvulot mud house (April 2011)

  4. Underwater survey and sampling: Group members retrieve submerged materials such as pottery and ballast stones via underwater survey. These materials are processed in the lab to study the effect of prolonged inundation on the external and internal mineralogical compositions of these materials. Future research will explore macroscopic and microscopic anthropogenic materials, such as phytoliths and wood ash, in submerged Neolithic sites.
  5. Sediment sampling: Two main methods of sampling at terrestrial and coastal sites are used:
    (a) Bulk samples for bulk analyses such as determination of mineralogical composition, determination of micro-remain concentrations, and more.

    Photograph showing block samples in the coastal site of Tel Dor, Israel,

    Photograph showing bulk sampling along a sedimentary profile in the coastal city of Tel Dor, Israel

    (b) Block samples for micromorphological analysis, i.e., sediments sampled as intact blocks retaining their original structure and relationships between the various materials they are composed of. This method allows study of microstratigraphic sequences, contextual material identification and assessment of post-depositional processes.

    Photograph showing block samples in the coastal site of Tel Dor, Israel,
    Photograph showing block samples in the coastal site of Tel Dor, Israel, each composed of several sedimentary units. The boundaries between the units are studied to understand modes of formation.

 

Underwater sampling of sediments from submerged sites is conducted as well.

A. Coastal and Underwater Archaeology at Tel Dor, Israel

- Ruth Shahack-Gross: Direction of the new coastal excavation of Tel Dor's Area K (in collaboration with A. Yasur-Landau, A. Gilboa, R. Martin and I. Sharon)

- Amanda Holdeman (MA student, co-supervised with A. Yasur-Landau, UH): Ballast stones from Dor's North Bay.

- Isaac Ogloblin (MA student, co-supervised with A. Yasur-Landau, UH): Chemical and mineralogical changes in waterlogged pottery in Dor's North Bay.

 

B. Understanding Collapse: The Destruction of the Tel Kabri Palace

Israel Science Foundation funded project (PIs: A. Yasur-Landau, R. Shahack-Gross)

- Dr. Paula Waiman-Barak: Material properties and experimental study of pottery and clay sources.

- Roey Nickelsberg (MA student, co-supervised with A. Yasur-Landau, UH): Sediments and micromorphology exploring aspects of destruction.

- Gilad Shtienberg (Post-doctoral fellow, co-supervised with A. Yasur-Landau, UH): Paleo-environmental aspect via coring and sedimentology.

 

C. The Intermediate Bronze Age in the Negev Highlands, Israel: a multidisciplinary study of chronology and subsistence economy

Germany-Israel Foundation funded project (PIs: R. Shahack-Gross, M. Fuchs; CI: I. Finkelstein)

- Zach Dunseth (PhD student, co-supervised with I. Finkelstein, TAU).

 

D. The destruction of Stratum VIII at Lachish via micro- and experimental archaeology

- Igor Kreimerman (PhD student, co-supervised with Y. Garfinkel, HUJI).

 

E. Recovering micro-archaeological evidence for ancient hunter-gatherer fishing industries

Azrieli Post-doctoral Fellowship funded

- Dr. Don Butler (Post-doctoral fellow).

 

F. Microarchaeology and microstratigraphy of discard in the Byzantine-Early Islamic Negev

Collaboration project (PI: G. Bar-Oz; The collapse of the Byzantine settlement system in the Negev)

- Zach Dunseth (PhD student): Agricultural practices through dung.

- Dr. Don Butler (Post-doctoral fellow): Waste management.

 

G. Trade during the Middle Bronze Age

- Andrew Baronet (Tel Achziv; MA student, co-supervised with Assaf Yasur-Landau, UH).

- Brigid Clark (Tel Megiddo; MA student, co-supervised with Assaf Yasur-Landau, UH).

 

H. Bone taphonomy and preservation in the Geometric Kebaran site of Newe David

- Mason Seymore (MA student, co-supervised with D. Nadel and R. Yeshurun, UH).

 

I. Geoarchaeology in the Mt. Carmel prehistoric sites of Newe-David and Tabun Cave

Collaboration projects (Newe David PIs: D. Nadel, R. Yeshurun; Tabun Cave PIs: M. Weinstein-Evron, R. Shimelmitz, L. Weissbrod. Post-doctoral fellow: D. Friesem)

Prof. Ruth Shahack-Gross (Head)

Dr. Paula Waiman-Barak (Laboratory Manager)

 

Current:

Dr. Don Butler (Post-doc; 2015- )

Gilad Shtienberg (Post-doc; 2017- )

Zachary Dunseth (MA, PhD; 2012- )

Igor Kreimerman (PhD; 2014- )

Amanda Holdeman (MA; 2014- )

Isaac Ogloblin (MA, PhD; 2014- )

Andrew Baronet (MA; 2014- )

Roey Nickelsberg (MA; 2015- )

Brigid Clark (MA; 2016- )

Mason Seymore (MA; 2016- )

 

Former:

Mor Gafri (MA; 2006-2008)

Sivan Einhorn (MA; 2009-2011)

Dr. Dan Cabanes (Post-doc; 2009-2011)

Dr. Lior Regev (Post-doc; 2011-2012)

David Friesem (MA and PhD; 2008-2014)

Shira Gur-Arieh (PhD; 2008-2015)

Dr. Mathilde Forget (Post-doc; 2013-2015)

Nadav Nir (MA; 2013-2016)

Dr. Arnald Puy (Post-doc; 2015-2017)

2017

Goshen, N., Yasur-Landau, A., Cline, E.H. and Shahack-Gross, R. 2017. Palatial architecture under the microscope: production, maintenance, and spatiotemporal changes gleaned from plastered surfaces at a Canaanite palace complex, Tel Kabri, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 11: 189-199.

Shahack-Gross, R. 2017. Archaeological formation theory and geoarchaeology: state-of-the-art in 2016. Journal of Archaeological Science 79: 36-43.

Toffolo, M.B., Regev, L., Mintz, E., Poduska, K.M., Shahack-Gross, R., Berthold, C.,Miller, C.E., Boaretto, E. 2017. Accurate radiocarbon dating of archaeological ash using pyrogenic aragonite. Radiocarbon 59: 231-249.

Yahalom-Mack, N., Eliyahu-Behar, A., Martin, M.A.S., Kleiman, A., Shahack-Gross, R., Homsher, R., Gadot, Y. and Finkelstein, I. 2017. Metalworking at Megiddo during the Late Bronze and Iron ages. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 76: 53-74.

Been, E., Hovers, E., Ekshtain, R., Malinsky-Buller, A., Agha, N., Barash, A., Bar-Yosef Mayer, D.E., Benazzi, S., Hublin, J.-J., Levin, L., Greenbaum, N., Mitki, N., Oxilia, G., Porat, N., Roskin, J., Soudack, M., Yeshurun, R., Shahack-Gross, R., Nir, N., Stahlschmidt, M., Rak, Y. and Barzilai, O. 2017. First Neandertal remains from a Middle Paleolithic open-air site in the Southern Levant. Scientific Reports 7: 2958 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-03025-z .

Butler, D.H.and Shahack-Gross, R. 2017. Formation of biphasic hydroxylapatite-beta magnesium tricalcium phosphate in heat treated salmonid vertebrae. Scientific Reports 7: 3610 http://rdcu.be/ttR6 and http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-03737-2 

Dunseth, Z.C., Junge, A., Lomax, J., Boaretto, E., Finkelstein, I., Fuchs, M. and Shahack-Gross, R. 2017. Dating archaeological sites in an arid environment: a multi-method case study in the Negev Highlands, Israel. Journal of Arid Environments 144: 156-169.

 

2016

Shahack-Gross, R. 2016. Archaeological micromorphology self-evaluation exercise. Geoarchaeology 31: 49-57.

Dunseth, Z., Junge, A., Fuchs, M., Finkelstein, I. and Shahack-Gross, R. 2016. Geoarchaeological investigation in the Intermediate Bronze Age Negev Highlands site of Mashabe Sade. Tel-Aviv 43: 43-75.

Zaidner, Y., Frumkin, A., Friesem, D., Tsatskin, A. and Shahack-Gross, R. 2016. Landscapes, depositional environments and human occupation at Middle Paleolithic open-air sites in the southern Levant, with new insights from Nesher Ramla, Israel. Quaternary Science Reviews 138: 76-86.

Langgut, D., Shahack-Gross, R., Arie, E., Namdar, D., Amrani, A., Le Bailly, M. and Finkelstein, I. 2016. Micro-archaeological indicators for identifying ancient cesspits; an example from Late Bronze Age Megiddo, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 9: 375-385.

Forget, M. and Shahack-Gross, R. 2016. How long does it take to burn down an ancient Near Eastern City? Antiquity 90 (353): 1213-1225.

Junge, A., Lomax, J., Shahack-Gross, R., Dunseth, Z., Finkelstein, I. and Fuchs, M. 2016. OSL age determination of archaeological structures using trapped aeolian sediments: a case study from the Negev Highlands, Israel. Geoarchaeology 31: 550-563.

Kahlenberg, R. and Shahack-Gross, R. 2016. Microarchaeological studies of hearths in the northwestern lower town of Tiryns. Pp. 82-86, in J. Maran and A. Papadimitriou, Gegen den Strom der Geschichte. Die nördliche Unterstadt von Tiryns: ein gescheitertes Urbanisierungsprojekt der mykenischen Nachpalastzeit (English: Against the Currents of History. The Northern Lower Town of Tiryns: An Aborted Urbanisation Project of the Mycenaean Post-Palatial Period). Archäologischer Anzeiger 2016(2): 19-118.

 

2015

Regev, L., Cabanes, D., Homsher, R., Kleiman, A., Weiner, S., Finkelstein, I. and Shahack-Gross, R. 2015. Geoarchaeological investigation in a domestic Iron Age quarter, Tel Megiddo, Israel. Bulletin of the American Schools for Oriental Research (BASOR) 374: 135-157.

Forget, M., Regev, L., Friesem, D. and Shahack-Gross, R. 2015. Physical and mineralogical properties of experimentally heated sun-dried mud bricks: Implications for reconstruction of environmental factors influencing the appearance of mud bricks in archaeological conflagration events. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 2: 80-93.

Cabanes, D., Shahack-Gross, R. 2015. Understanding fossil phytolith preservation: the role of partial dissolution in paleoecology and archaeology. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0125532. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125532.

Shahack-Gross R , Finkelstein I. 2015 Settlement Oscillations in the Negev Highlands Revisited: the Impact of Microarchaeological Methods. Radiocarbon , 57: 253-264

Regev, L., Cabanes, D., Homsher, R., Kleiman, A., Weiner, S., Finkelstein, I., Shahack-Gross, R. 2015. Geoarchaeological investigation in a domestic Iron Age quarter, Tel Megiddo, Israel. Bulletin of the American Schools for Oriental Research (BASOR) 374: 135-157.

2014

Gur-Arieh S, Shahack-Gross R, Maeir AM, Lehmann G, Hitchcock LA, Boaretto E. 2014 The Taphonomy and Preservation of Wood and Dung Ashes Found in Archaeological Cooking Installations: Case Studies From Iron Age Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science , 46: 50-67

Shahack-Gross R , Boaretto E, Cabanes D, Katz O, Finkelstein I. 2014 Subsistence Economy in the Negev Highlands: the Iron Age and the Byzantine/Early Islamic Period. Levant , 46: 98-117

Shahack-Gross R , Berna F, Karkanas P, Lemorini C, Gopher A, Barkai R. 2014 Evidence For the Repeated Use of a Central Hearth at Middle Pleistocene (300 ky Ago) Qesem Cave, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science , 44: 12-21

Friesem DE, Zaidner Y, Shahack-Gross R. 2014 Formation Processes and Combustion Features at the Lower Layers of the Middle Palaeolithic Open-Air Site of Nesher Ramla, Israel. Quaternary International , 331: 128-138

Friesem DE, Karkanas P, Tsartsidou G, Shahack-Gross R. 2014 Sedimentary Processes Involved in Mud Brick Degradation in Temperate Environments: a Micromorphological Approach in an Ethnoarchaeological Context in Northern Greece. Journal of Archaeological Science , 41: 556-567

Friesem DE, Tsartsidou G, Karkanas P, Shahack-Gross R. 2014 Where Are the Roofs? a Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Study of Mud Brick Structures and Their Collapse Processes, Focusing on the Identification of Roofs. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences , 6: 73-92

2013

Gur-Arieh S, Mintz E, Boaretto E, Shahack-Gross R. 2013 An Ethnoarchaeological Study of Cooking Installations in Rural Uzbekistan: Development of a New Method For Identification of Fuel Sources. Journal of Archaeological Science , 40: 4331-4347

Shahack-Gross R , Ayalon A. 2013 Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Wood Ash: an Experimental Study With Archaeological Implications. Journal of Archaeological Science , 40: 570-578

2012

Cabanes D, Gadot Y, Cabanes M, Finkelstein I, Weiner S, Shahack-Gross R. 2012 Human Impact Around Settlement Sites: a Phytolith and Mineralogical Study For Assessing Site Boundaries, Phytolith Preservation, and Implications For Spatial Reconstructions Using Plant Remains. Journal of Archaeological Science , 39: 2697-2705

Gur-Arieh S, Boaretto E, Maeir A, Shahack-Gross R. 2012 Formation Processes in Philistine Hearths From Tell es-Safi/Gath (Israel): an Experimental Approach. Journal of Field Archaeology , 37: 121-131

2011

Cabanes D, Weiner S, Shahack-Gross R. 2011 Stability of Phytoliths in the Archaeological Record: a Dissolution Study of Modern and Fossil Phytoliths. Journal of Archaeological Science , 38: 2480-2490

Namdar D, Zukerman A, Maeir AM, Katz JC, Cabanes D, Trueman C, Shahack-Gross R, Weiner S. 2011 The 9th Century Bce Destruction Layer at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel: Integrating Macro- and Microarchaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science , 38: 3471-3482

Maul LC, Smith KT, Barkai R, Barash A, Karkanas P, Shahack-Gross R, Gopher A. 2011 Microfaunal Remains at Middle Pleistocene Qesem Cave, Israel: Preliminary Results on Small Vertebrates, Environment and Biostratigraphy. Journal of Human Evolution , 60: 464-480

Friesem D, Boaretto E, Eliyahu-Behar A, Shahack-Gross R. 2011 Degradation of Mud Brick Houses in an Arid Environment: a Geoarchaeological Model. Journal of Archaeological Science , 38: 1135-1147

Marder O, Malinsky-Buller A, Shahack-Gross R, Ackermann O, Ayalon A, Bar-Matthews M, Goldsmith Y, Inbar M, Rabinovich R, Hovers E. 2011 Archaeological Horizons and Fluvial Processes at the Lower Paleolithic Open-Air Site of Revadim (Israel). Journal of Human Evolution , 60: 508-522

Shahack-Gross R . 2011 Herbivorous Livestock Dung: Formation, Taphonomy, Methods For Identification, and Archaeological Significance. Journal of Archaeological Science , 38: 205-218

2010

Gopher A, Ayalon A, Bar-Matthews M, Barkai R, Frumkin A, Karkanas P, Shahack-Gross R. 2010 The Chronology of the Late Lower Paleolithic in the Levant Based on u-th Ages of Speleothems From Qesem Cave, Israel. Quaternary Geochronology , 5: 644-656

Boaretto E, Finkelstein I, Shahack-Gross R. 2010 Radiocarbon Results From the Iron Iia Site of Atar Haroa in the Negev Highlands and Their Archaeological and Historical Implications. Radiocarbon, 52: 1-12

Katz O, Cabanes D, Weiner S, Maeir AM, Boaretto E, Shahack-Gross R. 2010 Rapid Phytolith Extraction For Analysis of Phytolith Concentrations and Assemblages During an Excavation: an Application at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science , 37: 1557-1563

2009

Frumkin A, Karkanas P, Bar-Matthews M, Barkai R, Gopher A, Shahack-Gross R, Vaks A. 2009 Gravitational Deformations and Fillings of Aging Caves: the Example of Qesem Karst System, Israel. Geomorphology , 106: 154-164

2008

Shahack-Gross R , Simons A, Ambrose SH. 2008 Identification of Pastoral Sites Using Stable Nitrogen and Carbon Isotopes from Bulk Sediment Samples: a Case Study in Modern and Archaeological Pastoral Settlements in Kenya. Journal of Archaeological Science , 35: 983-990

Shahack-Gross R , Ayalon A, Goldberg P, Goren Y, Ofek B, Rabinovich R, Hovers E. 2008 Formation Processes of Cemented Features in Karstic Cave Sites Revealed Using Stable Oxygen and Carbon Isotopic Analyses: a Case Study at Middle Paleolithic Amud Cave, Israel. Geoarchaeology-an International Journal , 23: 43-62

Albert RM, Shahack-Gross R, Cabanes D, Gilboa A, Lev-Yadun S, Portillo M, Sharon I, Boaretto E, Weiner S. 2008 Phytolith-Rich Layers From the Late Bronze and Iron Ages at Tel Dor (Israel): Mode of Formation and Archaeological Significance. Journal of Archaeological Science , 35: 57-75

Shahack-Gross R , Finkelstein I. 2008 Subsistence Practices in an Arid Environment: a Geoarchaeological Investigation in an Iron Age Site, the Negev Highlands, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science , 35: 965-982

2007

Karkanas P, Shahack-Gross R, Ayalon A, Bar-Matthews M, Barkai R, Frumkin A, Gopher A, Stiner MC. 2007 Evidence For Habitual Use of Fire at the End of the Lower Paleolithic: Site-Formation Processes at Qesem Cave, Israel. Journal of Human Evolution , 53: 197-212

Berna F, Behar A, Shahack-Gross R, Berg J, Boaretto E, Gilboa A, Sharon I, Shalev S, Shilstein S, Yahalom-Mack N, Zorn JR, Weiner S. 2007 Sediments Exposed to High Temperatures: Reconstructing Pyrotechnological Processes in Late Bronze and Iron Age Strata at Tel Dor (Israel). Journal of Archaeological Science , 34: 358-373

2005

Shahack-Gross R , Albert RM, Gilboa A, Nagar-Hilman O, Sharon I, Weiner S. 2005 Geoarchaeology in an Urban Context: the Uses of Space in a Phoenician Monumental Building at Tel Dor (Israel). Journal of Archaeological Science , 32: 1417-1431

2004

Shahack-Gross R , Berna F, Karkanas P, Weiner S. 2004 Bat Guano and Preservation of Archaeological Remains in Cave Sites. Journal of Archaeological Science , 31: 1259-1272

Shahack-Gross R , Marshall F, Ryan K, Weiner S. 2004 Reconstruction of Spatial Organization in Abandoned Maasai Settlements: Implications For Site Structure in the Pastoral Neolithic of East Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science , 31: 1395-1411

2003

Shahack-Gross R , Marshall F, Weiner S. 2003 Geo-Ethnoarchaeology of Pastoral Sites: the Identification of Livestock Enclosures in Abandoned Maasai Settlements. Journal of Archaeological Science , 30: 439-459

1999

Shahack-Gross R , Tchernov E, Luz B. 1999 Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Mammalian Skeletal Phosphate From the Natufian Period, Hayonim Cave, Israel: Diagenesis and Paleoclimate. Geoarchaeology , 14: 1-13

1997

Shahack-Gross R , Bar-Yosef O, Weiner S. 1997 Black-Coloured Bones in Hayonim Cave, Israel: Differentiating Between Burning and Oxide Staining. Journal of Archaeological Science , 24: 439-446

1996

Shahack-Gross R , Shemesh A, Yakir D, Weiner S. 1996 Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Opaline Phytoliths: Potential For Terrestrial Climatic Reconstruction. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 60: 3949-3953